During CNC machining, I have seen that while cutting, the nozzle nearby ejects oil like liquid. In fact, this liquid is cutting fluid.
Cutting fluid is a lubricant used in CNC machine tools, which has the functions of lubrication, cooling and cleaning. Therefore, cutting fluid plays a very important role in the automatic machining of CNC machine.
Function Of Cutting Fluid
Cutting fluid can form an oil film on the surface of workpieces and tools, and can penetrate into the smallest metal gaps and irregular places to reduce the friction between metals. The following effects can be achieved:
① Reduce tool wear and prolong tool life.
② Reduce the cutting resistance and use less power for machining.
③ Prevent burrs on the edges and improve the accuracy of the machined surface.
The cutting fluid can reduce the heat generated in the cutting operation, and its temperature can be as high as 600-1000 ℃. Especially for workpieces with low thermal conductivity such as stainless steel, it is difficult to dissipate heat, and the workpieces will become hot.
Using cutting fluid to reduce the temperature can bring the following effects:
① The thermal deformation of the cutter is reduced and the service life of the cutter is prolonged.
② The machining accuracy is stabilized by preventing thermal deformation of workpiece and tool.
③ High speed machining is realized.
Spraying cutting fluid can wash away the chips generated in the cutting process and clean the workpiece, which can bring the following effects:
① Prevent the workpiece from scratching due to chip adhesion.
② Prevent machining defects caused by chip blockage and accumulation.
③ Prevent tool breakage due to chip entanglement.
Classification Of Cutting Fluids
Cutting fluids can be roughly divided into two types: insoluble and water-soluble. Insoluble cutting fluids can be used directly, focusing on lubrication (and a few on cooling). Water soluble cutting fluid is usually diluted with water and used for cooling.
1. Insoluble cutting fluid
Insoluble cutting fluid is a cutting oil with oil as the main component. It has a good “lubrication” effect and can effectively prevent NC machine tools and workpieces from rusting. It is mainly used for cutting operations that require high precision.
Insoluble cutting fluid can be divided into inert type and active type. The inert type is used for mild cutting and machining of soft metals, which can effectively improve the tool life. The active type is used for difficult materials and low-speed machining, such as gear cutting, which can effectively improve the machining accuracy.
2. Water soluble cutting fluid
Water soluble cutting fluid is a kind of cutting oil mixed with water and oil. It has good cooling effect and is widely used in high-speed machining of machining centers.
There are three types of water-soluble cutting fluids commonly used: lotion, soluble solution and soluble solution.
Lotion, a water-soluble cutting fluid made of water, oil and surfactant, is a milky white liquid with large oily particles. It has high versatility and is widely used in machining centers.
Soluble, a water-soluble cutting oil made of water, oil, surfactants and soluble substances, is a translucent liquid with small oil particles. Excellent cooling and permeability.
Soluble fluid, a water-soluble cutting oil made of water and soluble substances. The oil particles are very small, the liquid is usually green, and has excellent cooling and durability.
The above is an introduction to the functions and classification of cutting fluid. I hope you will have a deeper understanding of this fluid